When the patient comes to the consultation for the first time, the dentist must explore, in addition to the state of the teeth and the presence of cavities, the possible presence of periodontal disease and bleeding gums.
Periodontal disease is the leading cause of tooth loss in the adult population, although most people do not know it. It is very common to have periodontal problems after the age of thirty. This means that some patients will have more or less serious problems of inflammation of the gums and loss of bone supporting the teeth.
Unfortunately, making the diagnosis is not always easy and we all know that in medicine two people do not always react in the same way. Bleeding is one of the common symptoms of swollen gums, but it is not always present. It is common for smokers not to have bleeding.
That is why when we visit the dentist we should always ask about our gum health.
Probe measuring a bag
To make the diagnosis, it is essential to use the Periodontal probe. The probe is an instrument of vital importance for our health. It has a handle and a millimeter tip with a blunt tip so as not to puncture the gum. This instrument must be properly used by expert hands to obtain the necessary information with it.
Graduated probe used for periodontal diagnosis
The professional must insert the probe into the space between the tooth and the gum. In healthy conditions, when the gum reaches the tooth, it forms a small fold called sulcus. This fold must be one or two millimeters long, but in situations of inflammation the epithelial junction that joins the gum to the tooth weakens and migrates in depth, so that a greater depth of this fold is produced. The deepest, inflamed fold is called Periodontal bag.
Consequently, the probe will measure the depth of the periodontal pocket, determining by means of its millimeter engraving the severity of the inflammation and the existing bone loss, since for the union of the gum and tooth to migrate downwards, there must have been previously bone loss.
In addition to verifying the presence of pockets, the dentist must analyze whether there is tooth mobility, gum recession with exposure of the tooth root, presence of furcation lesions, etc.
To obtain a good diagnosis it is important to have adequate radiographic information. For this we use periapical radiographs and orthopantomographies, which can be performed in our facilities.
With this information, he will configure the periodontal graph and establish a diagnosis of the situation that he will communicate to the patient as well as the treatment plan to correct the situation.
Periodontogram showing the data of the patient's gums
KEEP IN MIND
- Healthy gums should not bleed.
- There should be no periodontal pockets.
- Tooth mobility is an advanced symptom.