Periodontics is a dental specialty that includes the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the tissues that surround and support the teeth. Dentists specialized in this branch are called periodontist specialists.

Periodontal diseases are bacterial infections of the gums, bone, and periodontal ligament (fibers that support the teeth and keep them fixed in the jaw and maxilla). They destroy the gums and supporting bone that hold the teeth in the mouth. As a result, teeth can become loose and fall out or have to be extracted and replaced with bridges or dental implants.

Periodontal surgery may be necessary to cover exposed tooth root surfaces, correct indentations in the gums and jawbone, or reshape and repair gum tissue.. The dental implants they are placed to provide an artificial tooth root to support dental restorations that your dentist will later create.

CAUSES OF PERIODONTAL DISEASES

The main cause of periodontal diseases is bacterial plaque., a sticky, colorless coating that forms on the teeth. If not removed by brushing and flossing, plaque bacteria infect the gums, releasing toxins that redden and swell the tissue, gradually destroying the supporting tissues of the teeth and underlying bone. When this occurs, the gums pull away from the teeth, forming pockets that fill with more plaque and cause further infection.

Other factors that can affect the health of the gums are:

  • Bad habits. Your periodontal health can be affected by poor personal oral hygiene, oral piercings, smoking, and drug and/or alcohol abuse. A stressful lifestyle and poor nutritional habits, which can decrease your body's ability to fight infection, can also make you more susceptible to periodontal disease.
  • systemic factors. People with diseases such as diabetes and leukemia, who take certain medications, or who have systemic conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, malnutrition, or immunosuppression, may be especially vulnerable to gum disease due to its lower resistance levels.
  • hormonal factors. For women, hormonal fluctuations during key life stages - puberty, pregnancy and menopause - can trigger changes in tissues throughout the body, including the mouth. At such times, a woman's chances of developing periodontal disease may increase.
  • genetic influences. Genes and family history can indicate a predisposition to develop periodontal diseases and are one of the main causes of periodontitis.
  • tobacco use. Tobacco users show a higher incidence of calculus formation in the teeth, deeper pockets in the gums, and loss of bone and fibers that support the teeth. The chemicals in tobacco (tar and nicotine) are highly damaging to the tissues of the mouth and seriously affect the prognosis of periodontal disease. It should be remembered that smokeless tobacco users also have an increased risk of developing oral cancer.
  • Medicines. You should tell your dentist about any medications you are taking, as some medications (for example, oral contraceptives, antidepressants, and some heart medications) can adversely affect your gums or lead to periodontal disease despite not have a periodontal history and have had good control of oral health.
  • Bad dental condition: Decayed teeth, broken or ill-fitting dentures, crowded or crooked teeth, and poorly filled teeth can retain bacterial plaque, making it difficult to remove with routine oral hygiene methods.

WHEN TO GO TO A PERIODONTAL CLINIC: SYMPTOMS OF GUM DISEASE

You may have gum disease and not even know it. Often there is no pain, and periodontal diseases may not show symptoms until severe bone loss has occurred. However, it is important that you see your dentist or periodontist at the first sign of these common symptoms of periodontal disease:

  • Red, swollen, or tender gums
  • Gums that bleed easily when brushing or flossing
  • Gums that separate from the teeth
  • Loose or separating teeth
  • Pus between the gums and the teeth
  • persistent bad breath
  • Change in bite (occlusion) and/or fit of removable dentures

CONTINUOUS PERIODONTAL CONTROL AND MAINTENANCE

Periodontitis is a chronic disease. without a periodontal treatment meticulous and continuous, periodontal diseases can get out of control and cause serious irreversible damage. Once your periodontal health has been assessed, your periodontist will advise you to personalize the best treatment plan to control your periodontal disease.

Treatment may vary depending on the degree of advancement of periodontal disease. If diagnosed and treated early in your periodontal clinic, simple non-surgical periodontal therapy, known as periodontal therapy, may suffice. curettage. If periodontitis has progressed to the point of having deep periodontal pockets and significant bone loss, surgical treatment may be necessary.

Even when periodontitis is under control, you will need to continue to have regular curettage to maintain your oral health.. This continuous treatment allows to preserve the health of the gums and thus minimize the effects of periodontitis. It should be remembered that there is no cure for this gum condition, so it is important to stay healthy by going to the dental office regularly and practicing good personal oral hygiene.

If you think you have some of the common symptoms of periodontal disease or simply want to rule out periodontal disease, consult our specialized periodontal clinic and we will carry out a dental examination and dental diagnosis..

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